短暂的高强度间歇训练(HIIT)可逆转衰老

High Intensity Interval Training(HIIT) may reverse aging

 

 

人们早就知道体育锻炼可以减少身体炎症,改善心脏健康。

 

最近在cell.com上发表的研究表明,高强度间歇训练(HIIT)比举重训练或有氧运动更有效地改善代谢健康,与年龄相关的体质下降,并可能从细胞水平收获抗衰老的好处。

 

HIIT在改善老年人线粒体生物合成方面更有效。

 

HIIT逆转了许多与年龄有关的差异——在蛋白质组中,尤其是线粒体蛋白与线粒体蛋白合成的增加。

 

HIIT在年轻人(+49%)和老年人(+69%)中增加了最大的绝对线粒体呼吸,而随后的CT检测,在年轻人(+38%)中观察到线粒体呼吸明显的增加,但没有在老年人中没有观察到。

 

“老年人的HIIT训练在多种结果中有较强的效果,包括线粒体呼吸(1.7)、有氧适能(0.99)、胰岛素敏感性(0.5)”

 

HIIT发现基因转录本比其他的运动方式更有活力,特别是在老年人中,尽管与相应的个体蛋白质含量很少有重叠。

 

研究人员从两个年龄组中招募了36名男性和36名女性,年龄在30岁以下或65岁以上。

他们采用了三种不同的运动项目,包括高强度的间隔骑自行车,负重训练,以及混合低强度的骑自行车和举重。每个小组完成他们的计划12周。

 

“任何运动都比久坐不动要好,”该研究的资深作者、明尼苏达州罗彻斯特市梅奥诊所(Mayo Clinic)的糖尿病研究员斯里库马兰·奈尔博士(Dr. Sreekumaran Nair)说。然而,Nair指出,高强度间歇训练(HIIT)在扭转许多与年龄有关的变化方面是非常有效的

 

年轻人和老年人,男人和女人

Nair和他的同事为美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of health)资助的一项研究征集了两个年龄群体的男性和女性的帮助:“年轻志愿者的年龄从18岁到30岁不等;年龄较大的志愿者年龄在65岁到80岁之间。接下来,研究人员将这些参与者分成三个不同的年龄组,并分别安排了三个月的不同的监督训练计划。

 

高强度间歇训练训练组每周进行三天的自行车运动,高强度的间歇运动夹在低强度的踏板之间,每周有两天的时间是中等强度的跑步机行走。

 

力量训练组每周只进行两天的训练,目标是下肢和上肢肌肉。最后,联合训练组(比第一组的训练强度要低)和举重(比第二组的重复次数少),每周5天。

 

这样,不同的参与者在健身房花的时间有明显的差异。

 

在每次训练之前和之后,研究人员评估了每个志愿者的生理状况,包括身体质量指数、瘦肌肉量和胰岛素敏感性,这是糖尿病的一个指标。

 

研究人员还对每个志愿者的大腿肌肉进行了常规的活检,并进行了生化分析,以建立一个完整的肌肉指纹图谱。

 

通过对收集到的数据进行分析,Nair和他的同事们发现,所有形式的锻炼都能改善整体的健康状况,如心肺功能的测量,以及胰岛素敏感性的增加,从而降低了患糖尿病的可能性。

 

尽管所有的运动都有助于肌肉运动,但力量训练对于增强肌肉质量和增强力量是最有效的,而肌肉力量通常随着年龄的增长而下降。

 

与此同时,在细胞水平上,高强度间歇训练产生了最大的好处。

 

HIIT方面,年轻参与者的线粒体容量增加了49%,而年长的参与者则增加了69%

 

我们体内的每个细胞都含有线粒体。它们能像微型电池一样发挥作用,产生能量,为你的细胞提供能量。

 

对比其他形式的锻炼,间歇训练更能提高志愿者的胰岛素敏感性。Nair和他的同事们将从参与者那里收集到的蛋白质水平数据进行了比较,以了解为什么锻炼会带来这些好处。

 

提高你的细胞机制

如果我们把细胞看作是一个公司的层级结构,基因(DNA)就是向中层管理者信使RNA发出指令的执行者。通过转录这一顺序,RNA转化为核糖体,它通过连接氨基酸以合成蛋白质分子来发挥监督作用。最后,蛋白质,细胞工作的“马”,执行最初由基因决定的任务。

 

Nair在一封电子邮件中解释道:“蛋白质承受环境破坏,受损的蛋白质必须被新合成的蛋白质取代。随着久坐不动的人变老,许多蛋白质分子的产量下降。这些蛋白质分子的数量逐渐减少导致功能下降。

 

通过对肌肉活检的分析,研究人员发现,运动可以促进线粒体蛋白质和负责肌肉生长的蛋白质的细胞生成。

 

“运动训练,特别是高强度间歇训练,增强了机械(核糖体)产生蛋白质,增加了蛋白质的产生,增强了肌肉中的蛋白质含量,”Nair说。

 

他说,研究结果还表明,“发生的线粒体功能显著增加,尤其是在老年人中,是由于蛋白质丰富的肌肉。”

 

在某些情况下,高强度的治疗方案实际上似乎扭转了与年龄有关的线粒体功能和肌肉构建蛋白的下降。

 

根据作者的说法,运动能够改变线粒体,这可以解释为什么它能以如此多种不同的方式有益于我们的健康。

肌肉细胞,如大脑和心脏细胞,是不同寻常的,因为它们很少与身体中的大多数细胞相比较。Nair指出,由于肌肉、大脑和心脏细胞的磨损还不容易被取代,所以这三种组织的功能都随着年龄的增长而下降。

 

如果运动能恢复或阻止肌肉细胞中的线粒体和核糖体的恶化,运动也可能在其他组织中发挥同样的魔力。Nair说,尽管了解运动如何影响细胞的机制很重要,但这些见解也可以让研究人员开发有针对性的药物,以实现我们从那些不能运动的人身上获得的益处。

 

 

“锻炼几乎是一个种药”

 

根据南卡罗莱纳大学格林维尔分校的生理学和运动科学助理教授Jennifer Trilk的说法,这项新研究是全面的,并且支持先前的研究,将其全部合并为一篇论文。

 

“我们无法对这些信息进行足够多的研究,因为它对健康的影响是如此之大,”Trilk说,他没有参与这项研究。

 

她解释说,如果年轻人在年轻时增加线粒体功能,他们就能预防疾病,而对老年人来说,他们也能预防疾病,同时保持骨骼肌肉,这在老年时就会减弱。

 

“线粒体功能对人体的几乎每个细胞都很重要,”Trilk说。所以,当你没有线粒体功能或线粒体功能障碍时,你就会出现细胞功能障碍,所以从分子的角度来看,在你开始看到全身效应之前,你就会开始看到细胞功能紊乱,而这最终会成为疾病的症状:糖尿病、癌症和心血管疾病。

 

瑞典斯德哥尔摩卡罗林斯卡学院的综合生理学教授Juleen Zierath认为,这项研究是对人类骨骼肌在适应不同锻炼方式锻炼前后的全面和彻底的分析Zierath并没有参与当前的研究,他也很欣赏作者对年轻和年长参与者的影响。

 

她说:“这可以减少一些可能会对他们所谓的线粒体健康产生更大影响的训练机制。她说,与其他两个运动项目相比,间歇训练对细胞的机械作用确实有更强的影响

 

Zierath:“它促进了对线粒体功能至关重要的蛋白质——细胞的氧气动力。”“它逆转了许多我们所说的与年龄有关的线粒体功能和氧化代谢的差异。

 

她解释说:“HIIT的部分原因是,你扰乱了体内平衡,你在一个非常高的水平上锻炼,身体需要应对这种情况。

 

 

 

 

Zierath说,即使有一个项目有更好的效果,他们测试的每一项运动 方式都有积极的效果。他期待着未来的研究。

 

Zierath:“在某些方面,锻炼几乎是一种药物。开始锻炼永远都不晚

 

 

 

High Intensity Interval Training may reverse aging

 

High Intensity Interval Training may reverse aging

 

It’s long been known that physical activity can reduce inflammation in your body and improve heart health.

 

This study recently published in cell.com shows that High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is more effective than weight training or cardio for improving metabolic health, is superior for fighting age related decline, and may yield anti-aging benefits down to the cellular level.

 

HIIT was found to be even more effective at improving mitochondria biogenesis in older individuals.

 

HIIT reversed many age-related differ- ences in the proteome, particularly of mitochondrial proteins in concert with increased mitochondrial pro- tein synthesis.”

 

HIIT increased maximal absolute mitochondrial respiration in young (+49%) and older adults (+69%), whereas a significant increase following CT was observed in young (+38%), but not older adults”

 

HIIT training in older adults had strong effect sizes in multiple outcomes, including mitochondrial respiration (1.7), aerobic fitness (0.99), insulin sensitivity (0.5)”

 

HIIT revealed a more robust increase in gene transcripts than other exercise modalities, particularly in older adults, although little overlap with corresponding individual protein abundance was noted.”

 

Researchers enrolled 36 men and 36 women from two age groups—either under 30 or over 65.

 

They took on three different exercise programs that included high-intensity interval biking, strength training with weights, and one that mixed lighter cycling and lifting. Each group completed their plan for 12 weeks.

 

Any exercise is better than being sedentary,” said Dr. Sreekumaran Nair, senior author of the study and a diabetes researcher at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. However, Nair noted that high-intensity interval training (HIIT), in particular, is “highly efficient” when it comes to reversing many age-related changes.

 

Young and old, men and women

For the National Institutes of Health-funded study, Nair and his colleagues enlisted the help of both men and women from two age groups: The “young” volunteers ranged in age from 18 to 30; “older” volunteers ranged in age between 65 and 80. Next, the researchers divided these participants into three mixed-age groups and assigned each a different supervised exercise training program lasting three months.

 

The high-intensity interval training training group did three days a week of cycling, with high-intensity bouts sandwiched between low-intensity pedaling, and two days a week of moderately difficult treadmill walking.

 

The strength training group performed repetitions targeting both lower and upper body muscles just two days each week.Finally, the combined training group cycled (less strenuously than the first group) and lifted weights (fewer repetitions than the second group) for a total of five days a week.

 

There were clear differences, then, in the amount of time different participants spent in the gym.

 

Before and after each training session, the researchers assessed various aspects of each volunteer’s physiology, including body mass index, quantity of lean muscle mass and insulin sensitivity, one indication of diabetes.

 

The researchers also did routine biopsies of each volunteer’s thigh muscles and performed a biochemical analysis in order to establish a comprehensive fingerprint of the muscle.

 

Analyzing the gathered data, Nair and his colleagues found that all forms of exercise improved overall fitness, as measured by cardiorespiration, and increased insulin sensitivity, which translates into a lower likelihood of developing diabetes.

 

Although all exercise helped with musculature, strength training was most effective for building muscle mass and for improving strength, which typically declines with age.

 

Meanwhile, at the cellular level, high-intensity interval training yielded the biggest benefits.

 

With HIIT, younger participants saw a 49% increase, while older participants saw a 69% increase in mitochondrial capacity.

 

Every cell in our bodies contain   mitochondria. They perform as tiny batteries do, producing much-needed energy that powers everything your cells do.

 

Interval training also improved volunteers’ insulin sensitivity more than other forms of exercise. Drilling down deeper, Nair and his colleagues compared the protein-level data gathered from participants to understand why exercise provided these benefits.

 

Enhancing your cellular machinery

If we think of the cell as a corporate hierarchy, genes (DNA) are the executives issuing orders to their middle managers: messenger RNA. Tasked with transcribing this order, the RNA turns to ribosomes, which perform a supervisory role by linking amino acids in order to assemble protein molecules. Finally, the proteins, cellular work horses, carry out the task originally dictated by the gene.

 

Proteins sustain environmental damage and the damaged proteins have to be … replaced with newly synthesized (produced) proteins,” explained Nair in an email. “With aging in sedentary people, production of many protein molecules decline. … Gradually the quantity of these protein molecules decrease causing functional decline.”

 

Analyzing the muscle biopsies, the researchers discovered that exercise boosts cellular production of mitochondrial proteins and the proteins responsible for muscle growth.

 

Exercise training, especially high intensity interval training, enhanced the machinery (ribosomes) to produce proteins, increased the production of proteins and enhanced protein abundance in muscle,” Nair said.

 

He said the results also showed that “the substantial increase in mitochondrial function that occurred, especially in the older people, is due to increase in protein abundance of muscle.”

 

In some cases, the high-intensity regimen actually seemed to reverse the age-related decline in both mitochondrial function and muscle-building proteins.

 

Exercise’s ability to transform mitochondria could explain why it benefits our health in so many different ways, according to the authors.

 

Muscle cells, like brain and heart cells, are unusual in that they divide only rarely compared with most cells in the body. Because muscle, brain and heart cells do wear out yet are not easily replaced, the function of all three of these tissues are known to decline with age, noted Nair.

 

If exercise restores or prevents deterioration of mitochondria and ribosomes in muscle cells, exercise possibly performs the same magic in other tissues, too. And, although it is important simply to understand how exercise impacts the mechanics of cells, these insights may also allow researchers “to develop targeted drugs to achieve some of the benefits that we derive from the exercise in people who cannot exercise,” Nair said.

 

Almost a medicine’

According to Jennifer Trilk, an assistant professor of physiology and exercise science at University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville, the new study is comprehensive and supports previous research, combining it all into one paper.

 

We cannot have enough studies surrounding this information because of how impactful it is for health,” said Trilk, who was not involved in the research

 

She explained that if younger people boost mitochondrial function when they’re young, they would be preventing disease, while for an older population, they would also be preventing disease while maintaining skeletal muscle, which wanes in older age.

 

Mitochondrial function is important to almost every cell in the human body,” Trilk said. “So when you don’t have mitochondrial function or when you have mitochondrial dysfunction, you have dysfunction of cells, so from a molecular standpoint, you start seeing cellular dysfunction years before you start seeing the global effect, which ends up coming out as symptoms of diseases: diabetes, cancers and cardiovascular disease.”

 

Juleen Zierath, a professor of integrative physiology at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden, finds the study to be “a really comprehensive and thorough analysis of human skeletal muscle before and after” adapting to different exercise regimens. Zierath, who did not participate as a researcher in the current study, also appreciated the fact that the authors comprehensively examined the effects on both younger and older participants.

 

It teases out some of the training regimes that might be leading to greater effects on what they call mitochondrial fitness,” she said. Compared with the other two exercise programs, interval training “really had a more robust effect” on the machinery of cells, she said.

 

It boosted the proteins that are important for mitochondrial function — the oxygen powerhouse of the cells,” Zierath said. “It reversed many of what we call age-related differences in mitochondrial function and oxidative metabolism.”

 

Part of what happens with HIIT is, you disturb homeostasis, you exercise at a really high level, and the body needs to cope with that,” she explained.

 

Even though one program had superior effects, “every single exercise protocol they tested had positive effects,” said Zierath, who is looking forward to future research in this vein.

 

Exercise is almost a medicine in some respects,” Zierath said. “It’s never too late to start exercising.”

 

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