营养和运动: 正确的吃为你的运动提供燃料

Nutrition and Exercise Eating to Fuel Your Workouts

 

 

 

世界级的运动员知道,成功取决于训练和营养。他们小心地选择他们所吃的食物,所以正确的营养组合将会使他们成功。采取一些技巧,把你的饮食习惯转变成世界级的饮食。通过明智的饮食,你将会从适当的燃料中获益。最大限度地增加肌肉,帮助恢复和补充糖原储存,你将有能量和耐力通过你的锻炼和运动提升你的运动能力。

 

碳水化合物

碳水化合物对运动员来说是一种重要的营养物质,因为他们在运动中保持血糖水平,并补充肌肉中储存的碳水化合物——糖原。肌肉糖原是长期运动的主要燃料。

 

为了保持能量充足,运动员在高强度的基础上定期锻炼时,碳水化合物的推荐量从6克到10/公斤体重不等。所需的热量取决于个人每天的总热量消耗、运动类型、性别和环境状况(即热、冷或高海拔)。对于业余运动者来说,他们的饮食应该包含大约50%的碳水化合物,这些碳水化合物来自健康的来源,比如全谷物,而不是精制碳水化合物。

 

 

蛋白质

对耐力和力量训练的运动员的蛋白质建议范围从1.21.7/kg体重。这种蛋白质的摄入通常可以通过饮食来满足,而不需要使用蛋白质或氨基酸补充剂。

 

脂肪

脂肪的摄入量应该在总卡路里摄入量的20%30%之间。脂肪不应限制在20%以下,因为脂肪是热量、脂溶性维生素ADEK以及必需脂肪酸的重要来源。

 

液体

运动前、中、后充足的液体摄入对健康和最佳表现至关重要。运动前2 - 3小时,喝15-20盎司或水,运动前10 - 15分钟再喝8-10盎司。在运动中,每1015分钟喝810盎司。

 

 

 

对于持续90分钟以上的高强度耐力运动,或者当你在极端环境(热、冷或高海拔)锻炼时,目标是喝下去保持水分,并提供碳水化合物以维持血糖水平。摄入量应提供每小时30-60克的碳水化合物。这种碳水化合物可以在6-8%的碳水化合物运动饮料(8-16盎司)中每1015分钟消耗一次。

 

在你运动前

运动前吃的食物应该是脂肪和纤维含量较低,蛋白质含量适中,碳水化合物含量较高,以最大限度地维持血糖。

 

运动后30分钟内,饮食目标是提供足够的水分、电解质、热量、蛋白质和碳水化合物,以补充肌糖原,促进恢复。在开始的30分钟内,大约每磅0.5-0.7克碳水化合物的摄入量,每2小时,持续4 - 6小时,将足以补充糖原的储存。运动后摄入的蛋白质将为肌肉组织的构建和修复提供氨基酸。因此,在碳水化合物中加入0.2 g - 0.5 g/kg/天,比例为3 - 4:1(碳水化合物:蛋白质)可以进一步改善糖原的再合成,从而为未来的锻炼提供适当的补充能量。

 

 

 

Nutrition and Exercise Eating to Fuel Your Workouts

Fitday Editor Nutrition

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World-class athletes know that success depends on training and nutrition. They carefully choose the foods they eat, so the right combination of nutrients will fuel them to success. Take some tips and transform your eating habits into a world-class diet. By eating wisely, you will reap the benefits of being properly fueled. Maximize muscle growth, aide recovery and replenish glycogen stores, and you'll have the energy and endurance to power you through your workouts and athletic endeavors.

 

Carbohydrates

 

Carbohydrates are an important nutrient for athletes because they maintain blood glucose levels during exercise and replace muscle glycogen, the carbohydrate that is stored inside muscles. Muscle glycogen is the main fuel during prolonged exercise.

 

To stay fueled, carbohydrate recommendations for athletes exercising on a regular, highly-intensive basis range from 6 to 10 grams/kg body. The amount required depends on an individual's total daily calorie expenditure, type of exercise, gender, and environmental conditions (i.e. heat, cold, or high altitude). For part-time recreational exercisers, the diet should be comprised of about 50% carbohydrates coming from healthy sources like whole grains and not refined carbohydrates.

 

Protein

 

Protein recommendations for endurance and strength-trained athletes range from 1.2 to 1.7 grams/kg body weight. This protein intake can generally be met through diet alone, without the use of protein or amino acid supplements.

 

Fat

 

Fat intake should range from 20% to 30% of total calorie intake. Fat shouldn't be restricted below 20% because fat is an important source of calories, fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, and essential fatty acids.

 

Fluids

 

Adequate fluid intake before, during, and after exercise is important for health and optimal performance. Two to three hours before exercise, drink 15-20 ounces or water, and then another 8-10 ounces ten to fifteen minutes before exercise. During exercise, drink 8-10 ounces every ten to fifteen minutes.

 

For intense endurance exercise lasting more than 90 minutes or when you are exercising in an extreme environment (heat, cold, or high altitude), the goal is to drink to stay hydrated and to provide carbohydrate so that blood glucose levels are maintained. Intake should provide 30-60 grams of carbohydrate per hour. This carbohydrate can be consumed in a 6-8% carbohydrate sports beverage (8-16 ounces) every ten to fifteen minutes.

 

Before You Exercise

 

Food eaten before exercise should be relatively low in fat and fiber, moderate in protein and relatively high in carbohydrate to maximize maintenance of blood glucose.

 

Within 30 minutes after exercise, dietary goals are to provide adequate fluids, electrolytes, calories, protein and carbohydrates to replace muscle glycogen and promote recovery. A carbohydrate intake of approximately 0.5-0.7 grams per pound during the first thirty minutes and again every two hours for four to six hours will be sufficient to replace glycogen stores. Protein consumed after exercise will provide amino acids for building and repair of muscle tissue. So adding protein 0.2 g - 0.5 g/kg/day to carbohydrate at a ratio of 3 - 4:1 (Carbohydrate: Protein) may further improve glycogen re-synthesis so properly refuel for future exercise.

 

Maria Faires, RD is a Registered Dietitian, Personal Trainer, Advanced Health and Fitness Specialist and freelance writer based out of Sammamish, WA. Maria is considered to be one of Western Washington's premier fitness and nutrition experts. As the owner of Active Nutrition Fitness & Consulting, Maria provides highly personalized nutrition services, personal training and preventative and post-rehabilitative fitness programming in her private training studio. She also provides Skype, phone and online nutrition counseling and training for remote clients. Maria leads the industry in the development of cutting edge fitness and nutrition techniques as well as innovative and unique fitness programming. Maria expertly designs every workout, nutrition plan and provides the personal attention, extra motivation, support and accountability that helps her clients achieve optimal performance and health. Contact or read more about Maria at www.myactivenutrition.com.

 

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