降低血糖的最好运动

The best exercises to lower blood sugar

 

眨眼、呼吸、甚至你身体的每一个动作和活动都需要卡路里。每一次心跳,每一次哭泣,每一次大笑。而且,在某种程度上,即使是最轻微的运动也会消耗体内的能量——不管是糖分还是脂肪。但是,哪些体育活动和运动迫使身体选择从你的糖储备中提取糖。换句话说,哪种运动最能降低血糖? 糖尿病患者是否有这样理想的运动或体育活动来降低血糖?

 

快速的深蹲

没有时间走那一万步吗 ? 根据英国Heriot-Watt大学 2009年的一项研究,你可能只需要几分钟就能降低23%的血糖。比如从蹲起的位置跳起来,或者跑上一两段楼梯,可以迅速降低血糖水平。研究发现,所谓的“高强度间歇训练(HIIT)”是降低糖尿病风险的最有效方法。詹姆斯·蒂姆蒙斯博士是这项研究的带头人,他建议每周三次在自行车上进行4×30秒的冲刺。根据Timmons博士的观点,人们可以通过短时间、高强度的锻炼来大大降低患糖尿病和心脏病的风险。这类省时的运动吸引了那些关注控制血糖的忙碌工作者。

 

 

快速冲刺可能会起作用,因为它们会耗尽体内储存的糖原——储存在我们肌肉中的糖燃料。想象一下,你的肌肉里储存着几管糖,就像含糖的牙膏一样。把伴随糖尿病的高血糖想象成备用血糖。强迫我们的身体吸收血液中循环的过量葡萄糖的唯一方法就是首先让它在我们的肌肉中消耗糖原。而且,唯一一种能从我们的肌肉中“挤出”糖原的锻炼方式是强烈的肌肉收缩。

 

在这一点上,这项研究有些问题,因为只有16名年轻男性被研究,需要做更多的工作来复制更多不同年龄的参与者的结果。在你完全依赖“快速冲刺”运动,把它当成你要做的唯一一种运动来控制你的血糖之前。

 

下蹲和其他力量训练

一项针对西班牙男性的为期16周的研究发现,力量训练有助于控制血糖水平。出于这个原因,美国糖尿病协会现在建议进行力量训练来控制糖尿病。力量训练不需要成为健身会员。在家里你可以做很多运动来增强你的身体,降低你的血糖。深蹲是最好的选择之一。下蹲时,你大腿前的四头肌是你身体中最大的一块肌肉。下蹲还能激活你臀部的大块肌肉。这些大肌肉一旦被激活,就会迅速降低血糖水平。它们还可以通过减轻你的体重来提高您的新陈代谢。后背挺直,坐到椅子的正上方。站起来重复,保持背部挺直。每隔一天做310次蹲坐。

 

 

2014年,密歇根大学(University of Michigan)的一组研究人员在Lukas Schwingshackl博士的带领下进行了其他研究,研究了如何通过运动来降低血糖。这项研究特别考察了力量训练、有氧训练或两者结合是否最有效。明确的结论是,力量训练和有氧运动的结合对糖尿病患者的血糖控制效果最好。

 

目标是每周进行2 - 3天的力量训练,每周进行530分钟的有氧运动。

 

更新:

这将使你每周总共有150分钟的有氧运动。但这只是一个最小值。在2016年的立场声明中,美国糖尿病协会更进一步,推荐2030分钟的锻炼时间,这意味着最大值总共需要210分钟。

 

Best Exercises to Lower Blood Sugar-

A Comprehensive Review

Blink an eye. Breathe. Even think. Every single movement and activity of your body requires calories. Every beat of your heart. Every cry. Every laugh.  And, to some degree, even the slightest motion draws down on the body’s available fuel---either sugar or fat.  But which physical activities and exercises force the body to choose to draw from your sugar reserves.  In other words, which exercises are best at lowering blood sugar?  Are there any such ideal exercises or physical activities to lower blood sugar in diabetics?

 

2.  Explosive squats. Don’t have the time to walk those 10,000 steps?  You may only need a few minutes to lower your blood sugar by 23%, according to a 2009 study from Heriot-Watt

University in the UK. Exercises that we can do in quick bursts –like jumping up from a squat position or running up a flight or two of stairs –can quickly reduce blood sugar levels. So-called high intensity interval training” is the most efficient way to reduce diabetes risk, the study found. Dr. James Timmons, who lead the study, recommends 4 x 30 second sprints on an exercise bike three times a week.  According to Dr. Timmons, people can reduce their risk of diabetes and heart disease substantially with short, intense workouts. These type of  "time-efficient" exercises appeal to busy workers concerned about controlling blood sugar.

 

Quick sprints may work because they deplete the body’s supply of glycogen –the sugar fuel stored inside our muscles. Think of your muscles are having tubes of sugar stored in them, much like sugary toothpaste.  Think of the blood sugar that accompanies diabetes as stand-by sugar.  The only way to force our bodies to siphon off the excess sugar circulating in our blood is to first make it run down its glycogen inventories in our muscles.  And,  the only type of exercise that works to squeeze out” the glycogen inventories from our muscles are

intense contractions.

 

The study is somewhat questionable at this point because only 16 young men were studied and more work should be done to duplicate the results with more participants of varied ages

before you rely exclusively on “quick sprint” exercises as the only type of exercise you do to control your blood sugar.

 

 

   Squats and Other Strength Training.  A 16-week study of Hispanic men found that strength training helps to manage blood sugar levels.  For this reason, the American Diabetes Association now  recommends strength training to manage diabetes. Strength training does not require a gym membership. There are plenty of exercises you can do at home to strengthen your body and lower your blood sugar. Squats are one of the best. Squats use your quadricep muscles in front of your thighs, the single largest muscles in your body.  Squats also activate the large muscles in your buttocks.  Once activated, these large muscles draw down blood sugar levels quickly. They also help you to lose weight by increasing your

metabolism. With a straight back, lower yourself to a sitting position just above a chair. Rise up and repeat, keeping your back straight. Aim for 3 sets of 10 squats, every other day.

 

In 2014, a team of researchers from the University of Michigan, lead by Dr. Lukas Schwingshackl reviewed other studies which have looked at how best to lower blood sugar through exercise. The study looked in particular at whether strength training, aerobic training or a combination of both worked best. The clear conclusion was that a combination of strength training and aerobic exercise works best to control blood sugar in diabetics.

 

Aim for 2 to 3 days a week of strength training and 30 minutes of aerobics 5 days a week.

 

[Update:

 

This will bring you to a total of 150 minutes of aerobics per week. But this is just a minimum. In its 2016 Position Statement, the American Diabetes Association goes further,

recommending between 20 and 30 minutes of exercise on all or most days, which would mean a total of 210 minutes at the upper end.