VITAMIN P & ITS BENEFITS & FUNCTIONS
其他名称: 生物黄酮类|多酚| Hesperetin | Hesperidin |槲皮素| Rutin |植物化学物质
柑橘类生物类黄酮 (Citrus Bioflavonoids):这些类黄酮存在于柑橘类水果中，如橘子、柠檬、橘子和葡萄柚。它们在痔疮、易淤青和静脉曲张的治疗中得到了应用和临床证明。常见的柑橘类生物黄酮类化合物包括芦丁、槲皮素、柚皮苷和橙皮苷。
绿茶多酚(Green Tea Polyphenol):茶有三个主要品种——红茶、绿茶和乌龙茶。在这三种茶中，绿茶是由未发酵的茶树叶子制成的，其含量最高的多酚是强抗氧化剂。它的抗氧化作用可以是维生素C和E的20-80倍。绿茶多酚对健康有很多好处。根据发表在2004年12月1日的美国癌症研究协会的研究，绿茶多酚被发现可以防止前列腺癌的扩散并降低其他癌症的风险，如乳腺癌、肺癌和结肠癌。绿茶通过降低低密度脂蛋白胆固醇和血清甘油三酯水平，降低了与心脏病和中风相关的危险因素。它能抑制低密度脂蛋白胆固醇的氧化，从而导致动脉粥样硬化。它在抑制血小板聚集和形成导致心脏病发作和中风的异常血块方面也和阿司匹林一样有效。此外，它还能增加高密度脂蛋白(一种有益的胆固醇)的含量，有助于从动脉壁上清除动脉粥样硬化斑块。
大豆异黄酮:大豆含有一种叫异黄酮的类黄酮，是植物雌激素。植物雌激素(Phytoestrogens， " phyto " = plant ")是一种天然的非甾体类植物化合物，能帮助平衡雌激素对身体的影响，当激素水平高时，阻止其作用，当雌激素水平低时，如绝经后的妇女。试验和临床试验的证据表明，植物雌激素可能有助于预防心血管疾病、骨质疏松、更年期症状和前列腺癌和乳腺癌。这些疾病在富含大豆产品和植物的饮食文化中并不常见。
VITAMIN P & ITS BENEFITS & FUNCTIONS
Bioflavonoids | Polyphenols | Hesperetin | Hesperidin | Quercetin | Quercetrin | Rutin | Phytochemicals
Water soluble, which means that any excess is excreted in urine. The body cannot produce this nutrient, and must get it from the diet regularly.
On this Page:
What is Vitamin P · Benefits · Deficiency Signs · Foods · Supplements · RDA · Toxicity | Overdose
What is Vitamin P ?
Vitamin P, more commonly known as bioflavonoids, or flavonoids, are not strictly true vitamins, though they possess vitamin-like properties.
They are a vast array of compounds found in plants, and are classified as plant pigments. These pigments, over 4000 of which have been identified, are responsible for the dazzling colors of fruits and flowers.
Flavonoids belong to the larger group of beneficial plant compounds known as polyphenols.
Heat, acidity, boiling and processing can cause significant loss of flavonoid content in food, as much as 50% or more. Overcooking of vegetables is especially detrimental.
How Vitamin P Benefits Health
For a start flavonoids are powerful antioxidants that scavenge the harmful free radicals that damage our cells, and that alter genetic DNA, accelerate the aging process, and contribute to development of many diseases.
Free radicals occur naturally in the body as a result of conversion of food to energy, but more is added by toxins such as cigarette smoke, UV rays, radiation, and air and water pollution. Antioxidants are important as they neutralize these free radicals, and reduce the damage they cause.
Bioflavonoids have been extensively studied, and results show that they provide a number of health benefits. These can be better understood by looking at different groups of bioflavonoids that include:
Citrus Bioflavonoids: these are the flavonoids found in citrus fruit such as oranges, lemons, tangerines, and grapefruit. They are used and clinically proven in the treatment of hemorrhoids, easy bruising, and varicose veins. The commonly used citrus bioflavonoids include rutin, quercitrin, naringin, and hesperidin.
Quercetin : this is the most abundant and active of the flavonoids, and is a strong antioxidant. It is a major contributor to the medicinal activity of plants. Research indicates that quercetin has anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic,and powerful anti-cancer properties.It is found in commonly eaten food like apples, tea, berries, brassica vegetables, and many nuts, seeds and leaves such as Ginkgo Biloba, St. John’s Wort, and Elder. It is found in especially high amounts in broccoli, red onions, and garlic. A study has shown that people with a diet rich in red onions and garlic have 20 times less cancer risk.
ProanthoCyanidins: more commonly called pycnogenols or OPCs (oligomeric procyanidins) or PCOs (procyanidolic oligomers).These are found in many plants, especially pine bark, grape skin, and grape seed. They are also found in apples, cinnamon, cocoa, barley, bilberry, cranberry, blackcurrant, rhubarb, green tea, and black tea.Proanthocyanidins have extremely powerful antioxidant properties. Research shows that they provide 20 times more antioxidant impact than vitamin C, and 50 times more than vitamin E. They also prolong the lifespan of vitamin C, and boost vitamin E levels in blood vessels.Clinical trials of proanthocyanidins reveal many health benefits. In particular, they offer significant cardiovascular protection. Grape seed extract, for example, reduces risk of heart disease by reducing inflammation and slowing aggregation of platelets.
Other uses include antioxidant protection against atherosclerosis, cataracts, diabetes, gastric ulcer and cancer of the large intestines.
Proanthocyanidin extracts, such as from pine bark and grape seed, have been sold as nutritional supplements for the last 25 years in Europe. There is no official RDA, but research points to maximum benefits with daily dosages of 60 mg.
Green Tea Polyphenols : there are 3 main varieties of teas – black, green, and oolong. Of the three, green tea, made from unfermented Camellia Sinesis leaves, has the highest concentration of polyphenols that are powerful antioxidants. Its antioxidant impact can be 20-80 times that of vitamins C and E.Green tea polyphenols offer a number of health benefits. According to research published in the December 1 2004 issue of the American Association for Cancer Research, green tea polyphenols were found to prevent the spread of prostate cancer and to mitigate the risk of other cancers, such as breast, lung and colon cancer.Green tea reduces the risk factors associated with heart disease and stroke, by lowering LDL cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels.It inhibits oxidation of LDL cholesterol that leads to atherosclerosis. It is also as effective as aspirin in inhibiting platelet aggregation and formation of the abnormal blood clots that cause heart attacks and strokes. In addition, it increases levels of HDL, or good cholesterol, that helps remove atherosclerotic plaque from artery walls.
Published studies report that green tea lowers blood pressure and blood sugar levels significantly. High blood sugar is associated with accelerated aging, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and body fat.
Green tea appears to protect the liver against damage from toxins, including alcohol. Some studies suggest that catechins, one of the polyphenols in green tea, may help treat viral hepatitis.
Green tea can kill bacteria. It is known for its deodorising effect and helps kill oral bacteria that cause bad breath and cavities. It inhibits dangerous intestinal bacteria, but promotes the growth of friendly bacteria. It may also help treat inflammatory bowel diseases.
Green tea has traditionally been consumed in China, Japan and India, where its health effects have been known for centuries. It is known for its detoxifying effect, and ability to burn fat. It is also used to treat flatulence, promote digestion, and improve heart health.
It is also a known fact in countries that traditionally consume green tea, that it should not be taken in excessor on an empty stomach. A University of Toronto study published in February 2006 indicates that highly concentrated doses of green tea polyphenols may cause liver damage.
Soy Isoflavones : soy contains flavonoids called isoflavones, which are phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogens (“phyto” = plant) are natural non-steroidal plant compounds that help to balance the effect of estrogen on the body by blocking action of the hormone when levels of it are high, and acting like estrogen when estrogen levels are low, such as in postmenopausal women.Evidence from tests and clinical trials indicate that phytoestrogens may help prevent cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, menopausal symptoms, and prostate and breast cancer. These disorders are less common in cultures with diets rich in soy products and plants.
Flavonoids therefore play an important role in prevention and/or treatment of many health conditions. Benefits of flavonoids are summarized here.
VITAMIN P BENEFITS & FUNCTIONS
1. most flavonoids are powerful antioxidants that help neutralize harmful free radicals and prevent oxidative stress which damage cells and DNA, and which can lead to aging and degenerative diseases like cancer and Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease
2. enhances the effects of the other antioxidant vitamins, and increases levels of glutathione, an important and powerful antioxidant
3. enhances the use of vitamin C by improving its absorption, prolonging its effectiveness, and protecting it from oxidation
4. works with vitamin C to strengthen and protect blood vessel structure, and reduce prolonged bleeding, bruising, and nosebleeds
5. clinically proven in treatment of hemorrhoids and varicose veins
6. works with vitamin C to alleviate oral herpes
7. flavonoids with vitamin C may help prevent cold sores; to treat cold sores, try taking 1000mg of vitamin C with 1000 mg of bioflavonoids, then reduce to 500 mg of each 3 times a day
8. may help prevent and treat cataracts
9. stimulates bile production
10. used in treating sports injuries as it relieves pain, bumps, bruises
11. helpful for relieving leg and back pains
12. has antibiotic-like effect due to anti-viral and anti-bacterial activity, and also anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties
13. protects against cancer by inhibiting tumour growth
14. reduces risk of cardiovascular disease and heart attack by lowering LDL cholesterol level and stopping blood platelets from clumping, which minimises blood clotting and prevents build-up of atherosclerotic plaque on artery walls as effectively as aspirin, but without its side effects
15. known to lower hypertension (high blood pressure) and so lessen risk of stroke and heart disease
16. quercetin has natural anti-histamine and anti-inflammatory properties, and taken with bromelin may be useful in preventing and treating asthma and other allergies