抗癌策略 氧气和癌症 细胞缺氧可导致癌症

Oxygen and Cancer Low Levels Of Oxygen Can Breed Cancer...

增加细胞氧气可以杀死癌细胞

癌症和氧- pO2水平和肿瘤

癌症和氧气——肿瘤中的pO2水平(氧气的分压)

氧和癌症之间的联系很明显。事实上,癌症的潜在原因通常是细胞氧合水平低。

在新形成的细胞中,低水平的氧气会破坏呼吸酶,使细胞不能利用氧气产生能量。这些细胞会癌变,因为它们不能产生足够的能量在体内正常运作。

1931年,瓦伯格博士因证明癌症是由细胞缺氧引起的而获得了他的第一个诺贝尔奖。他在一篇题为“癌症的主要原因和预防……”癌症的起因已经不再是一个谜了,我们知道只要任何细胞被剥夺了35%的氧气需求48小时,它就会发生 癌变……

“癌症,尤其是其他疾病,有无数的继发性原因。但是,即使是癌症,也只有一个主要原因。用几句话概括一下,癌症的主要原因是糖的发酵代替了正常体细胞的呼吸作用。所有正常的体细胞都通过呼吸氧气来满足能量需求,而癌细胞则主要通过发酵来满足能量需求。因此,所有正常的体细胞都是专性的需氧细胞,而所有的癌细胞都是部分的厌氧细胞。”

低氧来自于细胞内和周围的致癌物质和其他毒素的积累,这些物质阻断并破坏细胞的氧呼吸机制。红细胞的聚集减慢了血液循环,并限制了流入毛细血管的流动。这也会导致缺氧。甚至缺乏合适的细胞壁构建模块-Omega - 3必需脂肪酸也会限制氧气的交换。

 

瓦伯格和其他科学家发现,当细胞氧含量降至65%以下时,细胞中的呼吸酶就会死亡。

当线粒体酶被破坏时,它们的宿主细胞不再能够利用氧气产生全部能量。因此,如果细胞要生存,它必须在某种程度上发酵糖来产生能量。在很短的一段时间内,比如跑步比赛时,这种糖的厌氧发酵是可以的。你的腿从发酵过程中积累乳酸,然后燃烧,最后停止跑步。然后你的细胞利用氧气恢复并产生能量。然而,当你的细胞不能利用氧气产生能量时,问题就来了,因为氧气会损害呼吸酶。然后它们必须主要通过发酵产生能量。这是导致细胞癌变的原因。

 

 

根据瓦伯格的说法,通过发酵糖产生能量的细胞可能会癌变。瓦伯格的观点是……

那些不能以有氧方式产生能量的细胞,不能产生足够的能量来维持它们正常运作的能力。所以他们失去了在体内做任何事情的能力。

发酵使这些细胞得以存活,但它们不再能在体内发挥任何功能,也不能与身体进行有效的沟通。因此,这些细胞只能繁殖和生长。并可能癌变。或者更准确地说,它们会降解成癌细胞,不再为你的身体服务,而是为了生存而生存……

几十年前,美国国家癌症研究所(National Cancer Institute)的两位研究人员迪恩·伯恩(Dean Burn)和马克·伍兹(Mark Woods)(迪恩翻译了瓦伯格的一些演讲)进行了一系列实验,测量了以不同速度生长的癌症的发酵速率。他们的发现支持了沃伯格博士的理论。

 

生长速率最高的癌症发酵速率最高。癌症生长越慢,利用发酵产生的能量就越少。

自然,瓦伯格关于氧气和癌症的争论受到了其他科学家的挑战和检验。

一些研究人员声称,在他们测量了一种生长速度特别慢的癌症,并且发现根本没有发酵之后,他的理论是无效的。如果癌症可以在没有发酵的情况下生长,那么发酵,或者缺氧呼吸,就不是癌症的原因。迪恩·伯恩和马克·伍兹检查了这些结果。

使用更复杂的设备,他们发现这些研究人员用来测量发酵水平的设备不够精确,不足以检测低水平的发酵。他们使用更新和更精确的设备进行测试,结果显示,即使在那些生长非常缓慢的癌细胞中,发酵仍然在以非常低的水平进行。

同样来自美国国家癌症研究所的Pietro Gullino设计了一项测试,该测试表明这种生长缓慢的癌症总是会产生发酵乳酸。来自南加州大学的生物化学家西尔维奥·菲亚拉也证实,这种生长缓慢的癌症会产生乳酸,其氧气呼吸作用会减弱。

对瓦伯格理论的进一步研究表明,当氧气水平降低时,细胞开始通过有氧代谢产生能量。当水平降到足够低的时候,它们最终会癌变。氧气水平降低了35%就发生癌变。

俄亥俄州波特史密斯冈尼尔研究中心的生化学家和物理学家J.B·基泽解释说:“自从瓦伯格的发现以来,呼吸的这种差异一直是正常细胞和癌细胞之间最根本的生理差异(有些人甚至说是唯一的差异)。通过细胞培养研究,我决定检测正常细胞和癌细胞对氧环境变化的不同反应。

“我发现的结果相当惊人。我发现……“高氧气02张力对癌症组织是致命的,95%是剧毒,而一般来说,正常组织不会受到高氧张力的伤害。”事实上,一些正常的组织需要高02张力。这似乎证明了一种可能性,如果癌细胞体内氧气02的张力可以升高,那么癌细胞可能会选择性地被杀死,因为癌细胞似乎无法在高氧气02的环境中处理氧气02。

细胞中的低氧水平可能是癌症的根本原因。细胞缺氧有几个原因。过量的毒素堵塞了细胞,劣质的细胞壁不允许营养物质进入细胞,缺乏呼吸所需的营养物质,血液循环不良,甚至我们呼吸的空气中氧气含量低。

癌细胞在发酵能量时会产生过量的乳酸。乳酸是有毒的,往往会阻止氧气进入邻近的正常细胞。随着时间的推移,随着这些细胞的复制,如果不被免疫系统破坏,癌细胞可能会扩散。

这幅画比奥托·沃伯格所理解的要丰富得多。结果表明大约85%的癌细胞使用这种葡萄糖发酵。其他的癌细胞确实会燃烧氧气作为燃料。这些细胞通过葡萄糖发酵与细胞有非常有趣的相互作用。

在过去的几年里,研究人员已经确定了一个更复杂和精确的癌症细胞代谢的描述。的确,大多数细胞都适合这种燃烧葡萄糖的模式来产生能量。

最新的研究显示……

许多癌细胞可以通过燃烧氧气来获取能量,这在产生能量方面要高效得多,但事实并非如此。研究人员拼凑出了这个谜题的答案。它是非常有趣的。

癌细胞不需要太多的能量来维持生存,而且有大量的能量来源可供它们使用。它们所需要的是生长和繁殖所需的大量营养物质。燃烧氧气产生大量的能量,而不是通过营养物质来促进生长。燃烧葡萄糖产生的能量很少,但却能产生大量的营养物质来促进生长和增殖。

因此,可能是生长最快的癌细胞利用葡萄糖发酵来产生能量,因为葡萄糖发酵产生的能量比它们需要的多很多,营养物质使它们能够快速生长和增殖。

这是有意义的。几十年前,迪恩·伯恩斯(Dean Burns)和马克·伍兹(Mark Woods)发现,生长最快的癌细胞有最多的葡萄糖发酵,生长最慢的癌细胞葡萄糖发酵最少。

此外,在过去的几年里,研究人员发现一些癌细胞燃烧乳糖酶(乳酸)甚至脂肪酮作为额外的能量来源。乳酸在肿瘤中很容易获得,因为大多数癌细胞都在燃烧葡萄糖以获取能量,并在此过程中产生乳酸作为副产品。

癌细胞排出乳酸来除去它这样乳酸就不会在细胞内堆积并摧毁它们。据研究人员介绍,肿瘤中的其他癌细胞主要通过氧气而不是葡萄糖来产生能量,它们通过吸收这种乳糖酶来产生能量。通过这样做,他们使用更少的葡萄糖,这使葡萄糖依赖癌细胞有更多的消费。

为了产生更多的营养作为细胞代谢的副产品,癌细胞也代谢谷氨酰胺。它也不是一个有效的能量来源,以运行细胞,但它提供了癌细胞生长和增殖所需的宝贵营养。

 

停止癌细胞的新陈代谢

显然,对抗癌症的关键是尽可能多地关闭癌细胞中的代谢过程。停止它们的能量生产和限制因子,停止它们的加工和生产所需的营养,以支持癌细胞的生长和快速复制。

本报告其他地方提到的两种长生不老药有助于解决这个问题。在《癌症基础》章节中提到的戊糖磷酸盐路径长生不老药,关闭了癌细胞内的初级葡萄糖代谢途径。在pH和癌症部分提到的谷氨酰胺可以减少进入癌细胞的谷氨酰胺含量,并抑制其代谢。

但要抑制癌细胞中产生能量和营养的各种途径,还需要做更多的工作。为了关闭这些通道,使用…

 

https://s.click.taobao.com/xJt8MNw

 

Oxygen and Cancer

Low Levels Of Oxygen Can Breed Cancer...

Increasing Cellular Oxygen Can Kill Cancerous Cells

Cancer and Oxygen - pO2 levels and tumors

Cancer and Oxygen -- pO2 levels (partial pressure of oxygen) in a tumor

The link between oxygen and cancer is clear. In fact, an underlying cause of cancer is usually low cellular oxygenation levels.

In newly formed cells, low levels of oxygen damage respiration enzymes so that the cells cannot produce energy using oxygen. These cells can then turn cancerous because they don't make enough energy to function normally in the body.

In 1931 Dr. Warburg won his first Nobel Prize for proving cancer is caused by a lack of oxygen respiration in cells. He stated in an article titled "The Prime Cause and Prevention of Cancer... the cause of cancer is no longer a mystery, we know it occurs whenever any cell is denied 60% of its oxygen requirements..."

"Cancer, above all other diseases, has countless secondary causes. But, even for cancer, there is only one primary cause. Summarized in a few words, the prime cause of cancer is the replacement of the respiration of oxygen in normal body cells by a fermentation of sugar. All normal body cells meet their energy needs by respiration of oxygen, whereas cancer cells meet their energy needs in great part by fermentation. All normal body cells are thus obligate aerobes, whereas all cancer cells are partial anaerobes."

Poor oxygenation comes from a buildup of carcinogens and other toxins within and around cells, which blocks and then damages the cellular oxygen respiration mechanism. Clumping up of red blood cells slows down the bloodstream, and restricts flow into capillaries. This also causes poor oxygenation. Even lack of the proper building blocks for cell walls, Omega 3 essential fatty acids, restricts oxygen exchange.

Warburg and other scientists found that the respiratory enzymes in cells, which make energy aerobically using oxygen, die when cellular oxygen levels drop below 65%.

When the mitochondrial enzymes get destroyed, they're host cell can no longer produce all its energy using oxygen. So, if the cell is to live, it must, to some degree, ferment sugar to produce energy. For a short period of time, like when running a race, this anaerobic fermentation of sugar is okay. Your legs build up lactic acid from this fermentation process and burn, and you stop running. Then your cells recover and produce energy using oxygen. However the problem comes when your cells cannot produce energy using oxygen because of this damage to the respiratory enzymes. Then they must produce energy primarily by fermentation most of the time. This is what can cause a cell to turn cancerous.

According to Warburg, cells that produce energy by fermenting sugars may turn cancerous. Warburg's contention is this...

The cells that cannot produce energy aerobically, cannot produce enough energy to maintain their ability to function properly. So they lose their ability to do whatever they need to do in the body.

Fermentation allows these cells to survive, but they can no longer perform any functions in the body or communicate effectively with the body. Consequently, these cells can only multiply and grow. And may become cancerous. Or perhaps it would be more accurate to say, they degrade into cancer cells that no longer serve your body, but live to survive...

Decades ago, two researchers at the National Cancer Institute, Dean Burn and Mark Woods, (Dean translated some of Warburg's speeches) conducted a series of experiments where they measured the fermentation rate of cancers that grew at different speeds. What they found supported Dr. Warburg's theory.

The cancers with the highest growth rates had the highest fermentation rates. The slower a cancer grew, the less it used fermentation to produce energy.

Naturally Warburg's contention about oxygen and cancer was challenged and tested by other scientists.

Some researchers claimed his theory was not valid after they had measured a particularly slow growing cancer, and found no fermentation at all. And if cancer could grow with no fermentation, then fermentation, or lack of oxygen respiration, was not the cause of cancer. Dean Burn and Mark Woods checked those results.

Using more sophisticated equipment, they determined that the equipment these researchers used to measure fermentation levels was not accurate enough to detect fermentation at low levels. Their testing, using newer and more accurate equipment, showed that even in those very slow growing cancer cells, fermentation was still taking place, at very low levels.

Pietro Gullino, also at the National Cancer Institute, devised a test which showed that this slow growing cancer always produced fermentation lactic acid. Silvio Fiala, a biochemist from the University of Southern California, also confirmed that this slow growing cancer produced lactic acid, and that it's oxygen respiration was reduced.

Further research into Warburg's theory showed that when oxygen levels were turned down, cells began to produce energy anaerobically. They ultimately became cancerous when levels went low enough. It took a reduction of 35% in oxygen levels for this to happen.

J. B. Kizer, a biochemist and physicist at Gungnir Research in Portsmith, Ohio explains, "Since Warburg's discovery, this difference in respiration has remained the most fundamental (and some say, only) physiological difference consistently found between normal and cancer cells. Using cell culture studies, I decided to examine the differential responses of normal and cancer cells to changes in the oxygen environment.

"The results that I found were rather remarkable. I found that... "High 02 tensions were lethal to cancer tissue, 95 percent being very toxic, whereas in general, normal tissues were not harmed by high oxygen tensions. Indeed, some normal tissues were found to require high 02 tensions. It does seem to demonstrate the possibility that if the 02 tensions in cancer tissues can be elevated, then the cancer tissue may be able to be killed selectively, as it seems that the cancer cells are incapable of handling the 02 in a high 02 environment."

Low oxygen levels in cells may be a fundamental cause of cancer. There are several reasons cells become poorly oxygenated. An overload of toxins clogging up the cells, poor quality cell walls that don't allow nutrients into the cells, the lack of nutrients needed for respiration, poor circulation and perhaps even low levels of oxygen in the air we breathe.

Cancer cells produce excess lactic acid as they ferment energy. Lactic acid is toxic, and tends to prevent the transport of oxygen into neighboring normal cells. Over time as these cells replicate, the cancer may spread if not destroyed by the immune system.

There is more to this picture than Otto Warburg understood. It turns out that approximately 85% of cancer cells use this glucose fermentation. Other cancer cells do burn oxygen for fuel. And these cells have a very interesting interaction with the cells using glucose fermentation.

Over the last few years researchers have identified a more sophisticated and accurate description of cancer cell metabolism. It is true that a majority of cells fit into this model of burning glucose to produce energy.

The Latest Research Shows...

that many cancer cells could be burning oxygen for energy, which is vastly more efficient at producing energy, but they aren't. Researchers pieced together the key to this puzzle. It is very interesting.

Cancer cells don't need a lot of energy to function, and there is plenty of energy sources available to them. What they do need is a large supply of nutrients necessary to grow and proliferate. Burning oxygen produces a lot of energy, and not much in the way of nutrients to fuel growth. Burning glucose produces little energy, but a lot of nutrients to fuel growth and proliferation.

So it may be that the fastest growing cancer cells utilize glucose fermentation to produce energy because it produces so much more of what they need, nutrients that enable them to grow fast and proliferate more rapidly.

This makes sense. Decades ago, Dean Burns and Mark Woods found that the fastest growing cancer cells had the most glucose fermentation, and the slowest growing cancer cells had the least amount of glucose fermentation.

In addition, over the past few years researchers have noted that some cancer cells burn lactase (lactic acid) and even fat ketones as additional energy sources. Lactic acid is readily available in tumors as most of the cancer cells are burning glucose for energy and producing lactic acid as a byproduct of that process.

They pump out the lactic acid to get rid of it so that it doesn't overwhelm and destroy them. Other cancer cells in the tumor that are producing energy primarily with oxygen and less with glucose, uptake this lactase, according to researchers, and metabolize it for energy. By doing so, they use less glucose which enables glucose dependent cancer cells to have more to consume.

In order to create more nutrients as a byproduct of cell metabolism, cancer cells also metabolize glutamine. It is also not an efficient source of energy to run the cell, but it supplies valuable nutrients needed by the cancer cells to grow and proliferate.

Shutting Down Cancer Cell Metabolism

Clearly, the key to fighting cancer is shut down as much of the metabolic processes as possible in cancer cells. Stopping both their production of energy, and the more limiting factor, their processing and production of nutrients needed to support the growth of cancer cells and their rapid replication.

Two elixirs mentioned elsewhere in this report help with this. The Pentose Phosphate Pathway Elixir, mentioned in the Foundations of Cancer section, shuts down the primary glucose metabolizing pathways in cancer cells. Glutam, mentioned in the pH and Cancer section reduces the amount of glutamine getting into cancer cells, and inhibits its metabolism.

But much more can be done to inhibit all the various pathways in cancer cells that produce energy and nutrients. To shut down these pathways, use the...

http://www.cancerfightingstrategies.com/oxygen-and-cancer.html