植物中的皂苷的抗病毒作用

 

Mechanism of antiviral activity of triterpenoid saponins

三萜皂苷的抗病毒活性机制

 

注释:中药中的人参,田七,黄芪,甘草等含有丰富的皂苷。

  

三萜皂苷是天然存在的三萜糖结合物,具有各种生物活性,包括抗病毒作用。从天然来源分离的两种物质针对单纯疱疹病毒1型复制进行了测试。他们没有在抗病毒测试条件下显示出细胞毒性的证据。从巴西植物(s21)分离的三萜皂苷代表齐墩果烷基团并抑制单纯疱疹病毒1DNA合成。从中国植物中分离出的三萜皂苷(s17)代表了ursane基团,似乎抑制了1型单纯疱疹病毒的病毒衣壳蛋白合成。版权所有©1999 John WileySonsLtd

 

C. M.O.SimõesMAmoros L. Girre博士

首次发布:1999618https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199906)13:4<323::AID-PTR448>3.0.CO;2-C

 

Triterpenoid saponins are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of triterpenes possessing various biological activities, including antiviral action. Two substances isolated from natural sources were tested against herpes simplex virus type 1 replication. They did not show evidence of cytotoxicity under antiviral test conditions. The triterpenoid saponin, isolated from a Brazilian plant (s21), represents the oleanane group and inhibited herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA synthesis. The triterpenoid saponin, isolated from a Chinese plant (s17), represents the ursane group and seemed to inhibit viral capsid protein synthesis of herpes simplex virus type 1. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

source:

Dr. C. M. O. Simões  M. Amoros  L. Girre

First published: 18 June 1999 https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199906)13:4<323::AID-PTR448>3.0.CO;2-C

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1573%28199906%2913%3A4%3C323%3A%3AAID-PTR448%3E3.0.CO%3B2-C

 

皂苷是是什么?有什么功效呢?

    皂苷,又称碱皂体,皂素,皂甙,皂角苷或皂草苷。苷类的一种。能形成水溶液或胶体溶液并能形成肥皂状泡沫的植物糖苷统称,是由皂苷元和糖、糖醛酸或其他有机酸组成的。一般可以将皂苷分为两大类,一类为甾体皂苷,多由27个碳原子所组成(如薯蓣皂苷),这类皂苷多存在于百合科和薯蓣科植物中。另一类为三萜皂苷,大多由30个碳原子组成。三萜皂苷分为四环三萜和五环三萜。这类皂苷多存在于人参,田七等五加科和伞形科等植物中。皂苷多为白色或乳白色无定形粉末,少数为晶体,味苦而辛辣,对黏膜有刺激性。皂苷是很强的表面活性剂,即使高度稀释也能形成皂液。皂苷对心脏有刺激作用;又是很强的溶血剂。

 

    多数皂苷能降低液体(水)的表面张力,因为皂苷具有丰富的泡沫性、良好的去油污性及润湿、分散和乳化性,生物降解性好,所以是天然的表面活性剂。能用作清洁剂,还有溶血和毒鱼的作用。有许多含皂苷类成分的中药如远志、桔梗等有祛痰止咳的功效;有些皂苷还具有抗菌的活性或解热、镇静、抗癌等有价值的生物活性。个别皂苷有特殊的生理活性,如人参皂苷能增进DNA和蛋白质的生物合成,提高机体的免疫能力。皂苷是一组结构多样的自然产生的化合物,主要发现在植物中,这些皂苷透出一股苦味,在水溶液中容易起泡沫。皂苷被认为对冷血动物是有毒的,对哺乳类动物的口服毒性却是很低的。在食品中天然存在的皂苷是无毒的,甚至可能对人类饮食有益。

 

     因为皂苷的来源广泛,在工业和食品保健方面都可以得到应用。在日化行业用于配制中性洗涤剂,用来洗涤毛衣和丝绸,能使织物色泽艳丽如新,柔软挺括,不产生缩绒现象。也可用来配制皂角香波,具有去屑止痒和洁发护发的作用。用它配制的毛纺工业洗涤剂,适用于精、粗纺产品的洗涤。而人参皂苷等因为能增强人体免疫力,对人体健康有益,所以常作为保健品。

 

皂苷类天然产物的一种研究用途涉及它们与胆固醇的络合以在细胞膜双层中形成孔,例如在红细胞(红细胞)膜中,其中络合导致静脉内注射时红细胞裂解(溶血)。[16]此外,该类的两亲性质赋予它们作为表面活性剂的活性,可用于增强大分子如蛋白质通过细胞膜的渗透。[8]

http://www.biopurify.cn/article/272.html

 

 

 

Saponin From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Saponins are a class of chemical compounds found in particular abundance in various plant species. More specifically, they are amphipathic glycosides grouped phenomenologically by the soap-like foam they produce when shaken in aqueous solutions, and structurally by having one or more hydrophilic glycoside moieties combined with a lipophilic triterpene derivative.[1][2]

 

Role in plant ecology and impact on animal foraging[edit]

In plants, saponins may serve as anti-feedants,[2][4] and to protect the plant against microbes and fungi.[citation needed] Some plant saponins (e.g. from oat and spinach) may enhance nutrient absorption and aid in animal digestion. However, saponins are often bitter to taste, and so can reduce plant palatability (e.g., in livestock feeds), or even imbue them with life-threatening animal toxicity.[4] Some saponins are toxic to cold-blooded organisms and insects at particular concentrations.[4] Further research is needed to define the roles of these natural products in their host organisms, which have been described as "poorly understood" to date.[4

 

 

Established research bioactivities and therapeutic claims

Bioactivities

One research use of the saponin class of natural products involves their complexation with cholesterol to form pores in cell membrane bilayers, e.g., in red cell (erythrocyte) membranes, where complexation leads to red cell lysis (hemolysis) on intravenous injection.[16] In addition, the amphipathic nature of the class gives them activity as surfactants that can be used to enhance penetration of macromolecules such as proteins through cell membranes.[8]

Saponins from the Gypsophila paniculata (baby’s breath) plant have been shown to significantly augment the cytotoxicity of immunotoxins and other targeted toxins directed against human cancer cells. The research groups of Professor Hendrik Fuchs (Charité University, Berlin, Germany) and Dr David Flavell (Southampton General Hospital, United Kingdom) are working together toward the development of Gypsophila saponins for use in combination with immunotoxins or other targeted toxins for patients with leukaemia, lymphoma and other cancers.

Vaccine adjuvants

Saponins have also been used as adjuvants in vaccines,[8] e.g. Quil A[17] component QS-21, isolated from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina, to stimulate both the Th1 immune response and the production of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) against exogenous antigens. This makes them ideal for use in subunit vaccines and vaccines directed against intracellular pathogens as well as for therapeutic cancer vaccines but with the aforementioned side-effects of hemolysis.[18]

In their use as adjuvants in the production of vaccines, toxicity associated with sterol complexation remains a major issue for attention.[19]

Nutritional uses

Saponins are being promoted commercially as dietary supplements and food ingredients.[20] There is evidence of the presence of saponins in traditional medicine preparations from licorice,[21][22] where oral administrations might be expected to lead to hydrolysis of glycoside from terpenoid (and obviation of any toxicity associated with the intact molecule). But as is often the case with wide-ranging commercial therapeutic claims for natural products:

the claims for organismal/human benefit are often based on very preliminary biochemical or cell biological studies;[23] and

mention is generally omitted of the possibilities of individual chemical sensitivity, or to the general toxicity of specific agents,[24] and high toxicity of selected cases.

While such statements require constant review (and despite the myriad web claims to the contrary), it appears that there are very limited US, EU, etc. agency-approved roles for saponins in human therapy. Therapeutic benefit is a result of careful administration of an appropriate dose. Very great care needs to be exercised in evaluating or acting on specific claims of therapeutic benefit from ingesting saponin-type and other natural products.

 

Use in animal feeding

Saponins are used widely for their effects on ammonia emissions in animal feeding.[25] The mode of action seems to be an inhibition of the urease enzyme, which splits up excreted urea in feces into ammonia and carbon dioxide. Animal trials have shown that a reduced ammonia level in farming operations causes less damages to the respiratory tract of animals, and may help to make them less vulnerable to diseases.

source:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saponin