运动可以对抗糖尿病导致的肌肉和神经中的线粒体和干细胞的功能障碍

 Diabetes-Induced Dysfunction of Mitochondria and Stem Cells in Skeletal Muscle and the Nervous System

 

Shin Fujimaki 1Tomoko Kuwabara 2*

1.     骨骼肌分子生物学研究组,硬组织疾病的基础和转译研究中心,生物医学科学研究院,日本长崎大学

2 . 生物技术研究所,生命科学与生物技术研究所,国家先进工业科学技术研究所(AIST),中央5,1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8565, Ibaraki,日本。

*通信:电话:+ 1 - 81-298-61-2534

收到:2017102/接受:20171011/出版:20171014

 

摘要:

 

 

 

糖尿病是世界范围内最常见的代谢性疾病之一,它是由胰岛素分泌或胰岛素作用障碍或两者同时存在引起的高血糖症。

 

据报道,糖尿病会破坏线粒体(Mitochondria) 的功能和动力学,线粒体在调节代谢途径中起着重要作用,对维持适当的能量平衡至关重要。与线粒体类似,在多种组织的糖尿病情况下,干细胞的功能和能力都减弱了。

 

 

近年来,有几项研究表明,线粒体功能和动力学的调控对于干细胞的精确分化至关重要。重要的是,体育锻炼可以通过改善线粒体和干细胞的功能来预防糖尿病的改变。在本综述中,我们概述了线粒体和干细胞的糖尿病改变以及体育锻炼对糖尿病的预防作用,重点是骨骼肌和神经系统。

 

 

我们建议通过体育锻炼来对抗糖尿病并发症下几个靶组织的线粒体和干细胞功能障碍,改善糖尿病患者的生理功能,维持他们的生活质量。

 

Diabetes-Induced Dysfunction of Mitochondria and Stem Cells in Skeletal Muscle and the Nervous System

Shin Fujimaki 1 and Tomoko Kuwabara 2,*

1 Musculoskeletal Molecular Biology Research Group, Basic and Translational Research Center for Hard Tissue Disease, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan

2 Biotechnology Research Institute for Drug Discovery, Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8565, Ibaraki, Japan

* Correspondence: Tel.: +81-298-61-2534

Received: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 14 October 2017

Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic diseases spread all over the world, which results in hyperglycemia caused by the breakdown of insulin secretion or insulin action or both. Diabetes has been reported to disrupt the functions and dynamics of mitochondria, which play a fundamental role in regulating metabolic pathways and are crucial to maintain appropriate energy balance. Similar to mitochondria, the functions and the abilities of stem cells are attenuated under diabetic condition in several tissues. In recent years, several studies have suggested that the regulation of mitochondria functions and dynamics is critical for the precise differentiation of stem cells. Importantly, physical exercise is very useful for preventing the diabetic alteration by improving the functions of both mitochondria and stem cells. In the present review, we provide an overview of the diabetic alterations of mitochondria and stem cells and the preventive effects of physical exercise on diabetes, focused on skeletal muscle and the nervous system. We propose physical exercise as a countermeasure for the dysfunction of mitochondria and stem cells in several target tissues under diabetes complication and to improve the physiological function of patients with diabetes, resulting in their quality of life being maintained.

 

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