由沙特阿拉伯国王大学药学院College of Pharmacy, King Saud University进行的研究，发现生姜对化学致癌物导致的肝细胞癌变有保护作用。
为了研究生姜提取物对乙基亚硝基胺(DEN)引发，并被四氯化碳(CCl(4))促进肝癌的可能的抗肿瘤活性。将60只雄性Wistar白化大鼠分为4组，每组15只。第1组大鼠(对照组)接受单一腹腔注射生理盐水。第2组的动物在饮用水中加入生姜(50毫克/公斤/天)，持续8周。第3组大鼠(DEN组)注射单次DEN (200 mg/kg, i.p)， 2周后，通过灌胃1次(2 mL/kg i.g)，按1:1稀释玉米油。第4组(DEN -ginger组)的动物在接受了第三组一样的致癌诱导方案，
另加肝癌发生前的2周内，在饮用水中 加入生姜(50 mg/kg/天)，并在整个实验期间继续进行。
Ginger ingredients inhibit the development of diethylnitrosoamine induced premalignant phenotype in rat chemical hepatocarcinogenesis model.
Mansour MA1, Bekheet SA, Al-Rejaie SS, Al-Shabanah OA, Al-Howiriny TA, Al-Rikabi AC, Abdo AA.
Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. email@example.com
To investigate the possible antitumor activity of ginger extract against hepatic carcinogenesis initiated by diethylnitrosoamines (DEN) and promoted by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) ). A total of 60 male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups with 15 animals in each group. Rats in group 1 (control group) received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of normal saline. Animals in group 2 were given ginger (50 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 8 weeks. Rats in group 3 (DEN group) were injected with a single dose of DEN (200 mg/kg, i.p.), 2 weeks later received a single dose of CCl(4) (2 mL/kg i.g) by gavage as 1:1 dilution in corn oil. Animals in group 4 (DEN-ginger group) received the same carcinogenesis induction protocol as in group 3 plus ginger (50 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 2 weeks before induction of hepatocarcinogenesis and continued throughout the experimental period. DEN-initiated and CCl(4) -promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in male Wistar rats was manifested biochemically by elevation of serum hepatic tumor markers tested; α-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen. In addition, hepatocarcinogenesis was further confirmed by a significant increase in hepatic tissue growth factors; vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and hydroxyproline content. A marked decrease in endostatin and metallothonein were also observed. Long-term ginger extract administration 2 weeks before induction of hepatocarcinogenesis and throughout the experimental period prevented the decrease of the hepatic content of metallothionein and endostatin and the increase in the growth factors induced by the carcinogen. Moreover, ginger extract normalize serum hepatic tumor markers. Histopathological examination of liver tissue also correlated with the biochemical observations. These findings suggest a protective effect of ginger extract against premalignant stages of liver cancer in the DEN-initiated and CCl(4) -promoted hepatocarcinogenesis model in rats.