甘油三酯是脂类,一种脂肪。它们存在于植物和动物的食物中。植物中的甘油三酯来自植物油,如向日葵和花生,它们在室温下保持液态。肉类和乳制品含有动物脂肪中的甘油三酯,在室温下保持固态。甘油三酯对某些身体机能是必需的,但高水平的甘油三酯会导致健康问题。

特征

甘油三酯是体内最常见的脂质。它们含有3个脂肪酸链。虽然甘油三酯在结构上与构建细胞膜的磷脂相似,但它完全是疏水的,这意味着它们不能与水混合,所以不能与细胞膜结合。因为它们不能与水混合,甘油三酯与一种叫做脂蛋白的特殊蛋白质结合,使它们能够通过血液运输。

能量储存

甘油三酯为你的身体提供能量,但它们的主要功能是储存能量供以后使用。你吃的食物含有碳水化合物、蛋白质和脂肪的热量。当你摄入的热量超过身体的消耗时,它会以甘油三酯的形式储存卡路里。脂肪细胞贮存甘油三酯分子,直到你的身体需要能量,例如在吃饭之间。激素刺激脂肪细胞释放甘油三酯供身体使用。

健康影响

甘油三酯提供了一个必要的功能——没有它们,你的身体就会耗尽能量,除非你经常吃东西。美国心脏协会警告说,甘油三酸酯水平升高,即高甘油三酯血症,与冠状动脉疾病有关。你可以通过询问医生的脂质面板来监测你的甘油三酯和胆固醇水平,这需要你提供血液样本。测试结果显示甘油三酯、总胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇和高密度脂蛋白胆固醇水平。

健康水平

医生推荐甘油三酯水平每分升150毫克或更少,以降低患心脏病的风险。每分升200到499毫克被认为是高的,高于500毫克每分升是非常高的。如果你的甘油三酯水平在高或非常高的范围,你应该改变生活方式来减少这些数字。

生活方式的改变

降低甘油三酯水平的最佳方法是减少每天摄入的卡路里,尤其是在你超重的时候。除了减少卡路里,减少饱和脂肪、反式脂肪和胆固醇的摄入,多吃水果和蔬菜。如果你饮酒,一定要适度,因为即使是少量的酒精也会导致你血液中的甘油三酯水平发生显著的变化。定期进行中等强度的运动,每周至少进行五天,每次30分钟,也有助于降低甘油三酯。

参考文献:

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Triglycerides are lipids, a type of fat. They are found in foods that come from both plants and animals. The triglycerides in plants come from vegetable oils, such as sunflower and peanut, which remain liquid at room temperature. Meat and dairy products contain triglycerides in animal fats, which remain solid at room temperature. Triglycerides are necessary for certain bodily functions, but high levels of them can lead to health problems.

Characteristics

Triglycerides are the most common lipid found in the body. They contain three chains of fatty acids. Although similar in structure to the phospholipids that build cell membranes, triglycerides are completely hydrophobic, meaning they cannot mix with water, so they cannot integrate into membranes. Because they can't mix with water, triglycerides bind to specialized proteins called lipoproteins to enable them to travel through the blood.

Energy Storage

Triglycerides provide your body with energy, but their main function is to store energy for later use. The food you eat contains calories in the form of carbohydrates, protein and fat. When you consume more calories than your body can use, it stores those calories in the form of triglycerides. Fat cells hold the triglyceride molecules until your body needs energy, such as between meals. Hormones signal the fat cells to release the triglycerides for your body to use.

Health Impact

Triglycerides serve a necessary function -- without them your body would run out of energy unless you were eating constantly. The American Heart Association warns that an elevated triglyceride level, a condition known as hypertriglyceridemia, is associated with coronary artery disease. You can monitor your triglyceride and your cholesterol levels by asking your doctor to order a lipid panel profile, which requires you to provide blood samples. The test results indicate the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol.

Healthy Levels

Doctors recommend a triglyceride level of 150 milligrams per deciliter or less to reduce your risk of heart disease. A level of 200 to 499 milligrams per deciliter is considered high, and a level above 500 milligrams per deciliter is very high. If your triglyceride level is in the high or very high range, you should make lifestyle changes to reduce those numbers.

Lifestyle Changes

The best way to reduce your triglyceride level is to decrease the number of calories you consume each day, especially if you are overweight. In addition to cutting calories, reduce your intake of saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol, and eat more fruits and vegetables. If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation, because even small amounts can cause significant changes in your blood triglyceride level. Getting regular moderate-intensity exercise, at least 30 minutes five days a week, can also help lower your triglycerides.

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