Interferons and viral infections
1957年Isaacs和Lindenmann报道，感染细胞中灭活的流感病毒的存在诱导了一种叫做干扰素的分泌细胞因子的产生，干扰素不仅可以保护邻近细胞免受流感病毒感染，还可以防御许多其他病毒。早期希望使用干扰素作为针对所有或至少许多病毒的通用药物在临床实践中没有实现。但在1976年，William Robinson和Thomas Merigan（加利福尼亚州斯坦福）报道干扰素α（当时在人类白细胞培养物中产生并且非常昂贵）抑制了HBV复制并治愈了一些患有慢性乙型肝炎的患者。进一步的临床研究表明，只有少数患者可以通过这种疗法治愈，而大多数患者在治疗结束后甚至在治疗期间病毒突破后复发。
In 1957 Isaacs and Lindenmann reported that the presence of inactivated influenza virus in an infected cell induced production of a secreted cellular factor, called interferon, which protected neighboring cells against infection not only by influenza virus but many other viruses as well. The early hopes to use interferon as a universal drug against all or at least many viruses did not materialize in clinical practice. But in 1976, William Robinson and Thomas Merigan (Stanford, California) reported that interferon alpha (at that time produced in human leukocyte cultures and very expensive) suppressed HBV replication and cured some patients suffering from chronic hepatitis B . Further clinical studies showed that only a minority of the patients could be cured by this therapy while the majority showed a relapse after the end of therapy or even viral breakthrough under therapy.
几乎所有类型的细胞在识别到病毒性分子模型时，尤其是细胞质和核内体受体识别到病毒核酸时，都诱导表达I型和III型干扰素。而II型干扰素等细胞因子诱导IL - 12,它的表达局限于T细胞和NK细胞等免疫细胞。
Interferons and viral infections.
Fensterl V1, Sen GC.
Department of Molecular Genetics, The Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.
Interferons represent a family of cytokines, which is of central importance in the innate immune response to virus infections. All interferons act as secreted ligands of specific cell surface receptors, eliciting the transcription of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes whose protein products have antiviral activity, as well as antimicrobial, antiproliferative/antitumor, and immunomodulatory effects. Expression of type I and III interferons is induced in virtually all cell types upon recognition of viral molecular patterns, especially nucleic acids, by cytoplasmic and endosomal receptors, whereas type II interferon is induced by cytokines such as IL-12, and its expression is restricted to immune cells such as T cells and NK cells.
The effectiveness of the interferon system in counteracting viral infections is reflected by the multitude of inhibitors of interferon induction or interferon action that are encoded by many viruses, preventing their eradication and resulting in the continued coexistence of viruses and vertebrates. The unique biological functions of interferons have led to their therapeutic use in the treatment of diseases such as hepatitis, multiple sclerosis, and certain leukemias.
Interferons and viral infections. - PubMed - NCBI https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19319841